Environment and Climate Change

Financial Overview

This section provides an overview of the financial resources required, available and projected to be available/ mobilized, for the delivery of outputs (and activities, when applicable) defined in the Joint Work Plans per each Outcome of the Government of Albania and United Nations Programme of Cooperation for Sustainable Development 2017-2021.

An estimated available budget of USD 20 million is planned for the implementation of UN initiatives in support of the country’s priorities in 2017. In addition, UN agencies will engage in the mobilization of another USD 14 million through the support of partners in the country – government and other partners.

Meanwhile, the full PoCSD 2017-2021 implementation requires USD 108 million worth of technical assistance and investments over five years, using core resources from the global UN system but also drawing on local financial support from development partners and the government.

For detailed information on the breakdown of funds per outcome, please see information on the Joint Work Plans.

Financial Information 2017 - Outcome 4 Environment and Climate Change

Partners

Successful implementation of this outcome will require the contributions of multiple partners, including:

  • Line Ministries (Ministry of Environment; Ministry of Energy and Industry; Ministry of Interior Affairs; Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Water Administration; Ministry of Urban Development; Ministry of Education; Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth)
  • Local Governments
  • Academia
  • Civil Society
  • Communities
  • Networks on sustainability
  • Schools and teachers
  • Business community
  • Development partners
  • Man and Biosphere Committee
  • Environmental Inspectorate
  • National Environmental Protection Agency
  • Prosecutors’ offices
  • Local courts

UN Agencies that will contribute to outcome 4 are: FAO, UNDP, UNESCO, UNEP, UNECE, UNIDO and IAEA.

Participating UN Agencies

UN Agencies that will contribute to outcome 4 are: FAO, UNDP, UNESCO, UNEP, UNECE, UNIDO and IAEA.

For more information, please see Joint Work Plan 2047-2018 - Outcome 4 Enviornment and Climate Change.

Links with NSDI priorities and the SDGs

The outcome is expected to support the GoA to achieve National Strategy for Development and (European) Integration (NSDI II) 2015-2020 priority 6 for greater connectivity in country infrastructure and the sustainable use of resources. The NSDI II adopts a broad definition of ‘infrastructure’ comprising energy, transport, natural resources and the environment, agriculture, mining, tourism, and water. Investments are central to meeting the standards of the EU Acquis and are expected to expand opportunities for business and the economy, and to increase people’s well-being.

To contribute to this outcome, the expected outputs and initiatives of UN programme support will support the GoA to find greater balance in the use of ecosystem resources. The UN will promote knowledge and awareness about sustainable development and support the government at national and local levels to anticipate and cope with the effects of climate change, emergencies and disasters. Strong links with the NSDI II include:

  • Dynamic and balanced regional development;
  • A healthy and sustainable environment;.
  • A cost-effective and sustainable energy system;
  • Expanded and improved water supply and waste management systems; and
  • Strengthened territorial, spatial, and urban planning.

In addition, the UN will support the GoA to reduce fragmentation and strengthen coordination with the system for emergency preparedness and disaster risk management, which is under NSDI II priority 1.

 

UN programme support will also contribute to GoA efforts to achieve several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets from the following list:

SDG

Target

Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

 

Goal 6Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

 

5.a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws

 

6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

 

 

Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

 

 

 

 

Goal 11 Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency

7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency

 

11b. By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, ,.., halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

15.3 By 2020, combat desertification, and restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land-degradation neutral world

15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

Delivering for development in Albania (third edition)

1 December, 2016

Dear partners and UN friends.

We are pleased to present the third edition of our quarterly newsletter. News contained here, highlight our joint endeavours to advance human rights, empower women and girls to ensure a more sustainable future, combat the effects of climate change, access to justice, improve basic service for citizens, give a boost to the economy, tackle inequalities, combat corruption and build an inclusive society. With the adoption of 2030 Agenda and the sustainable development goals, 2016 presents an unprecedented opportunity to embark on a new path to improve the lives of people in Albania. You can find more detailed information, through the links provided. We recommend this newsletter to a wide audience to gain more insight into our work, results and impact.

Delivering for development in Albania (first edition)

9 June, 2016

Dear partners and UN friends.We are pleased to present the first edition of our quarterly newsletter.

News contained here, highlight our joint endeavours to advance human rights, empower women and girls to ensure a more sustainable future, combat the effects of climate change, access to justice, improve basic service for citizens, give a boost to the economy, tackle inequalities, combat corruption and build an inclusive society. With the adoption of 2030 Agenda and the sustainable development goals, 2016 presents an unprecedented opportunity to embark on a new path to improve the lives of people in Albania. You can find more detailed information, through the links provided. We recommend this newsletter to a wide audience to gain more insight into our work, results and impact.

Download this Document: 

UN Annual Progress Report 2013

10 February, 2014

Dear Partners and Colleagues,

As the Co-chairs of the Joint Executive Committee, we are pleased to present to you the 2013 Annual Progress Report for the Government of Albania-United Nations Programme of Cooperation 2012 - 2016.

This report highlights tangible development results achieved over the course of the year and outlines substantive areas where the United Nations (UN) has partnered with the country as it advances in its most important goal of integration in the European Union (EU). The partnership between the UN and Albania is wide ranging from rule of law, governance, economy, environment, regional and local development and inclusive policies.

A unique set of integrated management arrangements brings together senior representatives of both government and participating UN agencies. Such arrangements have proven instrumental to joint decision-making, have simplified planning and reporting. Furthermore, as this report highlights, such arrangements have enhanced programmatic synergies, forged national ownership – fundamental for effective development cooperation and focus on results. This has allowed us to deliver more and better, enhance accountability and improve coherence.

A Parliamentary election in 2013 brought to power a new coalition government with a new programme and vision. Albania today, has renewed energy and dynamism in pursuit of its objectives: to set the country on a path towards EU accession and play a lead role in shaping the post-2015 Agenda. And the momentum is building around this process which must be bold in ambition yet simple in design, supported by a new partnership for development.

Mid Year update of the implementation of the current Government of Albania-UN Programme of Cooperation 2012-2016

4 October, 2016

Continuing on the ‘Deliver as One’ path, 8 resident and 7 non-resident agencies of UN Albania continue to combine their expertise and experience in support of Albania’s development priorities, providing more coherence, better results and greater impacts in the country.

Outcome 1 - Human Rights

  • OUTPUT 1.1 NORMATIVE REPORTING, TRACKING AND QUALITY
  • OUTPUT 1.2 ACCESS TO JUSTICE AND CIVIL SOCIETY SUPPORT
  • OUTPUT 1.3 ELIMINATING VIOLENCE IN SOCIETY
  • OUTCOME CHAIR -MR. DAVID SAUNDERS, UN WOMEN REPRESENTATIVE

Human Rights and gender equality considerations guide interactions between citizens and institutions.

Environment and Climate Change

(Text from the Programme of Cooperation 2017-2021)

Government and non-government actors adopt and implement innovative, gender-sensitive national and local actions for environmental sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and disaster risk reduction.

Overview

Albania is State Party to all the three Rio Conventions, on climate change, desertification and biodiversity. In addition, Albania is a party to the following Environmental Conventions: Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a transboundary context, Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents and Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. The protection of Albania’s environment has not kept pace with its economic growth. The increased demand for natural resources and uncontrolled exploitation has caused significant damage to the environment.

Some 36% of the territory of Albania is forested, providing significant livelihood resources. The decline in forest area is due to clearance for agriculture, overgrazing, and woodcutting for fuel and building. More than 60% of forest and pasture lands are under municipal or commune management. This provides local incentives to improve the management and protection of forest, land and water resources. An important challenge is to recognise and strengthen the role of women in forestry value chains and non-timber forest products (NTFP), as well as women’s representation in the regional and local boards of communal forests and pastures.

Albania has doubled its protected areas over the last 10 years. Ongoing challenges include: lack of financial resources, low management capacity of LGUs and legal enforcement, shortage of qualified scientific staff and lack of data and trend analysis about protected species, poor community involvement in protection, and lack of trust in local administration. Weak law enforcement reflects broader governance and rule of law concerns.

Over 90% of energy production is from hydropower, while agriculture is critically dependent on irrigation. Irrigation, energy production, and industrial activities place serious strains on the country’s water resources. Most electricity generated in Albania has been produced by hydropower, although increased demand has led to regular power shortages. Irregular supply and outages blights the living conditions of low income families who lack physical and economic access to modern energy services.  The Government is committed to diversify its energy supply and promote other forms of renewable energy – such as solar energy and biomass energy.

The national MDG target of 98 per cent of people with access to safe drinking water by 2015 was not reached. This is despite the increase in access to safe drinking water from 69 to 82% between 2002 and 2009. The pollution of water resources and the marine environment is a serious problem, mainly due to insufficient wastewater collection and treatment, leaking sewers and waste dumps. Sanitation is a persistent problem in the country with about one half of the urban population having a sewer connection. In rural areas, only a small proportion of the areas with piped water supply is equipped with sewer networks. The risks and costs of water pollution on health and nutrition are not addressed, nor factored into disaster preparedness planning. Municipal waste management has become another major source of pollution due to poor planning and budgeting, inadequate taxation for waste management services at local level, no attempt to implement the national waste strategy, illegal dumpsites, and a very low level of recycling. Industrial pollution is concentrated in 35 hotspots where copper, chromium, iron-nickel and oil industries have produced several million tons of industrial waste. Remediation costs for 14 hotspots are estimated at 112 million Euros.

Albania is one of the most vulnerable countries in the region to a changing climate and it is estimated that summer rainfalls will decline by about 10% by 2020 and 20% by 2050. Energy production and agriculture will be acutely impacted with an estimated loss of 60% of power generation capacity. The rural poor, in particular poor women and older, poor women and men, will be disproportionately affected because of their greater dependence on agriculture, their relatively lower ability to adapt, and the high share of income they spend on food. Currently Albania is a low emitter of greenhouse gases with 2.76 tons CO2 per capita compared to EU 9.9 tons per capita but they are projected to increase in the coming years, mainly from transport followed by agriculture and waste sector.

Albania ranks as one of the countries with the highest economic risk in the world from multiple hazards, with 86% of its territory prone to two or more disasters. Impacts fall disproportionately on vulnerable women and children. Legislative gaps remain and Albania does not yet have a comprehensive and countrywide disaster risk management strategy. Organisational and technical capacities at national and LGU levels to anticipate and manage for disaster risks, and to respond effectively to emergencies are extremely low. The floods in 2010 and 2015 showed that Albania’s national disaster preparedness is reactive rather than preventive and that investments are needed to develop and implement national and local measures to adapt to changing climate conditions and reduce risks from future disasters.

Strategies:

In line with the cross-sectoral linkages in SDGs, the overall programme strategy will build institutional capacity, data, and knowledge to integrate environment and climate considerations more fully into the national regulatory framework, and to develop new capacities and systems for implementation and compliance monitoring across major sectors. These changes will also support the GoA to align national laws, policies, and regulations with the requirements of the EU Acquis. Specific efforts will:

  • Support the implementation of environment policies and strengthen the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, with a specific focus on the poor and (female) farmers;
  • Support the development of LGU capacities for environmental protection planning and budgeting;
  • Support the improvement of the management of protected areas and biosphere reserves;
  • Assist in the formulation of action plans regarding land degradation and deforestation;
  • Scale-up action on DRR and climate change mitigation and adaptation across sectors and support the development of a national disaster risk reduction strategy and local disaster early warning systems, that adheres to international and Hyogo Framework standards , with particular attention being paid to vulnerable groups living in areas affected by climate change;
  • Support LGUs to prepare high quality, costed DRR plans, including for world heritage sites, and including rural areas;
  • Support LGUs, school administrations, civil society organizations, youth and children in promoting environmental education and developing initiatives aimed at natural resources preservation;
  • Promote innovative technologies for renewable energy;
  • Enhance local capacities for sustainable forest management, taking into consideration the needs of poor households regarding bio-fuels;
  • Promote integration of health and environmental considerations into transport policies - particularly when it comes to city dwellers suffering from air pollution-  including strengthening national capacity in road safety management;
  • Support ministries and departments to incorporate sustainability and low emission measures into sector policies, strategies, and regulations;
  • Support the GoA to fulfil its international reporting commitments to Multilateral and Regional Environmental Treaties, including transboundary water management in the Drin river basin.

Efforts will be made to mainstream environmental considerations into other areas of the PoCSD as follows:

Outcome 1: Support for enforcement of environmental legislation

Outcome 2: Inclusion of education on environment and sustainable development

Outcome 3: Measures to safeguarding natural & cultural heritage, such as Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the inclusion of environmental sustainability and climate resilience in agricultural policies.

Vulnerable groups:

This outcome will respond to: Poor population; Farmers; Women; Communities, elderly that live in areas affected by climate change and environmental degradation; City dwellers; Children.

For more information, please see Joint Work Plan 2047-2018 - Outcome 4 Enviornment and Climate Change.